This unit is divided into three parts

Part 1.  The Enlightenment  refers to  the intellectual developments of the eighteenth century.  Those men and women who were a part of this movement were called philosophes . Their work set the stage for much of our thinking today about personal freedoms and the reform of existing conditions and institutions. , France was the heart of the movement.  The reforming ideas of the Enlightenment found expression in the American Revolution and the French Revolution.

Learning Objectives:  Enlightenment.

    The student will:

      1.  identify leading philosophes and their works

       2.  the influence of the works of Locke and Rousseau on the revolutions of England, America and France

Go the links below and read in the textbook and the links on each topic page.

Enlightenment        Making Europe  pp. 509=523


Part 2.  The French Revolution represents a culmination of eighteenth-century ideas, economic transitions, . It was a direct response to the obvious abuses of the French absolute monarchy or the "old regime" . The Enlightenment was a significant factor in bringing on the French Revolution but the financial crisis of the monarchy was the spark. This was the result of economic problems due to the wars of Louis XIV and Louis XV, the upkeep of Versailles and its hangers-ons, poor harvests, inequitable taxes. Louis XVI's decision to convene the Estates-General led to the revolution..  The nature of the French Revolution was not immediately radical nor a movement of the masses.   By 1791 the radicals began to take control of the revolution. The character of the Revolution was also changed by foreign threats. Fearing foreign domination, the French people chose to save the revolution by accepting radical rule. The Reign of Terror which was a part of the radicalization of the revolution was ended with the "Thermidorian reaction".  The corruption of  the Directory resulted with the coup of 1799 and the establishment of the First Consulate under Napoleon.  Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor in 1804.

Learning Objective:  French Revolution.

    The student will:

    . 1.  describe the financial crisis that called the calling of the Estates General.

      2.  describe the various revolutionary governments and their successes and failures.

      3.  list and describe the major events of the revolution.

       4.  know the response of the governments of Europe to the revolution.

Go the links below and read in the textbook and the links on each topic page.

French Revolution       Making Europe pp. 562-580


Part 3.  In 1799,  Napoleon Bonaparte led a military coup and established himself as the leader of France, and five years later he was crowned Emperor Napoleon I. During his rule, Napoleon conquered most of Europe dictating alliances which allowed him to control the continent.  Great Britain was never defeated and was the center piece of opposition. One of the most important effects of Napoleon's  success in conquering Europe -- the rise of  modern nationalism -- led to his downfall, as citizens united to protect their land from the French invader. The French army spread the liberalism and nationalism attained in the French Revolution across Europe..  The spread of these ideals caused people to rise up against the French.

Learning Objectives:  Napoleon

  The student will:

     1. describe Napoleon's rise to power

     2. describe Napoleon's military successes

     3.  describe Napoleon's administrative reforms

     4.  explain the reasons for Napoleon's downfall

     . Go the links below and read in the textbook and the links on each topic page.

Napoleon         Making Europe pp. 580-587This material will be on the second exam Mar. 13-23

When reading in the text and the on-line materials, you should take notes, in organizing your notes be sure to include dates ( in order to know the timing of  events), important persons, important events, note how the people affect the event and how the events affect people.  My outlines on each topic pages tell you what I consider to be the important persons/events of the topic. 

After you have read in text book and the links on each topic page, answer the response questions.

Students who use the work of others or who plagiarize will receive a failing grade for the work and can receive a failing grade for the class.  I am using SafeAssignment which checks students' work for plagiarizing. 


1. The response will be a minimum of 350 words( That is each response will be 350 words or more).
2. Please write the question as the heading for your response.
3. Be sure to place your name on the page.
4.  Your responses should be double-spaced, font size 10 or 12   using arial or other simple font.
5.Please send the two response questions as a single document as an attachment in the Blackboard Assignment link.
After you have used spell-check, be sure to proofread your responses.
7. Be sure to save your work.
8.  Remember your work should be done as a Rich text file/format.
9.  There is  five (5) point penalty for late work. Work will not be accepted two (2) days after the date due.

EVALUATION OF RESPONSES Each question will be worth 20 points/ 40 points for the two. 1.  They will be graded upon the content (, your understanding of the question, your analysis and synthesis of the materials and discussion )
2. on the correct usage of the language (spelling, punctuation, grammar, mechanics). 
3. The grading standard for the correct usage of the language will be Edited American Standard.

Select two of the following Response Questions.

Enlightenment/French Revolution/Napoleon Feb. 26 ( Wed. 12:00 noon, )

The French Revolution clearly marks the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.  During the French Revolution there were six constants---the king's indecisiveness ; financial problems; food shortages; rumor; women; violence.  The Revolution moved from a moderate period (the National Assembly) to the radical period ( the National Convention).  The various governments introduced changes that reflected the political thinking  of the day, changes were lasted a brief time, changes that have remained.

1.  In what ways did the Enlightenment affect the French Revolution.  Be sure to discuss the social contract of Locke and Rousseau.

2.  List and compare the legislative acts/accomplishments of the National Assembly ( Constituent Assembly) with the acts/accomplishments of the National Convention.

4.  Based on the six constants listed above, select two episodes of violence from the French Revolution and show the constants in bringing about/acerbating incidents which became violent.

5.  The Glorious Revolution had been nearly bloodless, the American Revolution had no Terror, why then was the French Revolution bloody from beginning  to end (  storming of the Bastille to the Reign of Terror)? Consider the leaders, events, circumstances in this discussion.

The French Revolution comes to an end when Napoleon establishes the Consulate.

6.  Briefly describe the life of Napoleon Bonaparte with regard to his military successes and failures.

7.  The Revolutionary Armies and Napoleon's army succeeded in conquering much of Europe, something which the absolutist armies of the Kings had failed to do. Why were the Revolutionary and Napoleonic armies successful in conquering Europe?

8.  Napoleon is often viewed as the "son of the Revolution".  Why would this be true?  Did his domestic policies preserve the Revolution?  What were the major accomplishments of his domestic policy?